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href="http://www.designwasp.com/">åQšæ²³åŒ—双æ˜?/a>  </span></p> <div> <p> 作äؓ混凝土的重要¾l„成材料åQŒèƒ¶å‡ææ–™ä¸ŽåŠŸèƒ½å¤–加剂是实现混凝土高性能化的关键技术。一斚w¢åQŒèƒ¶å‡ææ–™ç»æ°´åŒ–作用后åŞ成硬化浆体,与æ؜凝土内砂石组分粘¾l“成为整体。其中,¼‹¬åŒ–‹¹†ä½“çš„å¾®¾l“构与æ؜凝土性能密切相关åQ›å¦ä¸€æ–šw¢åQŒåŠŸèƒ½å¤–加剂以较低的用量实现å¯ÒŽØœå‡åœŸå¾®ç»“构优化与调控åQŒä»Žè€Œæ»¡­‘³ä¸åŒæœå½ÒŽ€§èƒ½è¦æ±‚。近òq´æ¥åQŒéšç€å¤§åž‹åŸºç¡€è®¾æ–½ä¸ŽçŽ°ä»£å·¥½E‹ç»“构的快速发展,混凝土技术所面äÍ问题主要体现ä¸ÞZ¸Š˜q°èƒ¶å‡ææ–™ä¸ŽåŠŸèƒ½å¤–加剂两个方面。基于上˜q°åˆ†æžï¼Œæœ¬æ–‡ž®†å›´¾l•é‡å¤§å·¥½E‹éœ€æ±‚,重点介绍混凝土技术在胶凝材料与功能外加剂方向的新˜q›å±•åQŒåˆ†æžä¸Š˜q°æŠ€æœ¯æ‰€é¢äÍ问题åQŒåƈå¯ÒŽœªæ¥ç ”½I¶å·¥ä½œè¿›è¡Œå±•æœ›ã€? </p> <p>一、传¾lŸç¡…酸盐水惔 </p> <p>¼‹…酸盐水泥的快速发展亟需重视收羃开裂与适应性问题。从英国工程师Joseph Aspdin获得授权专利èµøP¼Œ¼‹…酸盐水泥及其æ؜凝土在不åˆ?00òq´çš„发展历程中已成äؓ全世界用量最大的基础材料。随着水惔行业的科技˜q›æ­¥åQŒç¡…酸盐水惔的生产工è‰ÞZ¸Žå„方面性能指标得到了显著的提升。近òq´æ¥åQŒæˆ‘国新的水泥烧成工艺通过高固气比悬æÕQ预热预分解技术,使得水惔产量增加40%以上åQŒåºŸæ°”中的SO2和NOX排放降低50%以上åQŒåŒæ—¶èƒ½è€—显著降低。除了烧成工艺的˜q›æ­¥åQŒç¡…酸盐水惔的粉¼‚¨æŠ€æœ¯ä¹Ÿå¾—到快速发展,水惔¾l†åº¦å’Œæ¯”表面¿U¯ä¹Ÿåœ¨ä¸æ–­å¢žåŠ ï¼Œå¤§å¹…提高了水泥强度ã€? </p> <p>ž®½ç®¡å¦‚æ­¤åQŒçŽ°æœ‰ç ”½I¶è¡¨æ˜Žï¼Œéšç€æ°´æƒ”¾l†åº¦çš„增加,水惔快速水化的集中攄¡ƒ­åQŒå°†åŠ å‰§æ··å‡åœŸæ—©æœŸæ”¶¾~©ï¼Œå¢žå¤§æ¸©åº¦å¼€è£‚风险。其中,当水泥比表面¿U¯ç”±280m2/kg增加è‡?80m2/kgåQ?其开裂温度增åŠ?.5℃,开裂时间提前约1倍。其‹Æ¡ï¼Œæ°´æƒ”熟料矿物中C3S含量­‘…过55%åQŒå‘ˆçŽîC¸Šå‡è¶‹åŠÑ€‚一斚w¢åQŒé«˜C3S含量有效提高混凝土的早期强度åQ›å¦ä¸€æ–šw¢åQŒéšç€C3S含量的提高,水惔水化攄¡ƒ­é‡é›†ä¸­ï¼Œæžå¤§å¢žåŠ äº†æ°´æ³¥æ؜凝土的早期开裂风险。最后,随着水惔行业低碳¾l¿è‰²åŒ–的发展需要,­‘Šæ¥­‘Šå¤šçš„工业废渣作为æ؜合材被掺入硅酸盐水惔中,提升水惔基材料性能。然而,˜q‘年来优质原材料的匮乏,å¯ÆD‡´ä½Žå“è´¨æˆ–低活性æ؜合材åQŒå¦‚煤矸矟뀁炉底渣½{‰çš„大量不合理ä‹É用,从而媄响水泥æ؜凝土的工作性能与力学性能ã€? </p> <p>同样圎ͼŒå¤§é‡å·¥ä¸šå‰¯äñ”物石膏,如脱¼‹«çŸ³è†ã€ç£·çŸŒ™†å’Œæ°ŸçŸŒ™†åQŒç”±äºŽå…¶æº¶è§£é€Ÿåº¦çš„差异,会导致水泥凝¾l“时间异常,与高效减水剂相容性变差。针对上˜q°é—®é¢˜ï¼Œ¼‹…酸盐水泥的未来的发展方向在于水泥熟料矿物组成的设计与优化。在水惔材料设计斚w¢åQŒæœªæ¥åº”重点借助于计½Ž—机模拟æ–ÒŽ³•ç ”究水惔水化机理åQŒä¼˜åŒ–水泥组分和性能。另一斚w¢åQŒç§¯æžå¼€å±•å…·æœ‰ä½Žæ°´åŒ–热特性的高贝利特水惔研究与应用,从而在减少混凝土开裂的同时åQŒå¤§òq…度降低¼‹…酸盐水泥生产能耗ã€? </p> <p>二、新型胶凝材æ–? </p> <p> 煅烧¾_˜åœŸ-石灰矛_¤åˆèƒ¶å‡ææ–™ï¼ˆLC3åQ‰æ˜¯¾l¿è‰²ä½Žç¢³¼‹…酸盐水泥的研究前沿。煅烧粘土类矿物相比于粉煤灰与磨¾l†çŸ¿æ¸£å…·æœ‰æ›´é«˜çš„火山灰活性,在部分取代硅酸盐水惔时åƈ不会影响水惔基材料的早期力学性能。同时煅烧粘土矿物的原材料高岭土储量丰富åQŒç”Ÿäº§çƒ§åˆ¶å·¥è‰ÞZ¸Ž¼‹…酸盐水泥相ä¼û|¼Œå¯é‡‡ç”¨æ°´æ³¥ç”Ÿäº§è®¾å¤‡ç”Ÿäº§ï¼Œòq¶ä¸”煅烧温度低,煅烧˜q‡ç¨‹ä¸­ä¸ä¼šé‡Šæ”¾æ¸©å®¤æ°”体CO2åQŒå…·æœ‰è¯¸å¤šä¼˜åŠÑ€‚瑞士洛桑联邦理工学院Scrivener教授最新提å‡ÞZº†ç……烧¾_˜åœŸä¸ŽçŸ³ç°çŸ³å¤åˆèƒ¶å‡ææ–™ä½“ç³»åQˆLimestone calcined clay cementåQŒç®€¿U°LC3åQ‰ã€‚在该体¾pÖM¸­åQŒç……烧粘土与石灰矛_œ¨¼„±æ€§çŽ¯å¢ƒä¸‹ååº”生成了水化äñ”物水化碳铝酸钙,在两者æ€ÀLŽºé‡è¾¾åˆ?5%æ—Óž¼Œæ°´æƒ”基材料的力学性能与抗渗性能依然优于普通硅酸盐水惔体系ã€? </p> <p>同时åQŒç……烧粘土与石灰石的复合掺加能节¾U¦æ›´å¤šçš„¼‹…酸盐水泥熟料,˜q›ä¸€æ­¥é™ä½Žæ°´æ³¥ç”Ÿäº§è¿‡½E‹ä¸­çš„碳排放量,因而被视äؓ一¿Uæžå…·åº”用前景的新型低碳水惔体系。研½I¶è¡¨æ˜Žä‹É用煅烧粘土与石灰矌™ƒ½æ˜¾è‘—优化水惔基材料的孔径¾l“æž„åQŒé™ä½Žå­”隙率åQŒä»Žè€Œæœ‰æ•ˆæŠ‘制有害介质的扩散侵入åQŒæé«˜æ؜凝土抉|Š—氯离子äçR蚀的能力。在同等条äšg下,煅烧¾_˜åœŸä¸ŽçŸ³ç°çŸ³å¤åˆèƒ¶å‡ä½“系的氯¼›Õd­æ‰©æ•£¾pÀL•°è¾ƒæ™®é€šç¡…酸盐水惔降低80%。尽½Ž¡å¦‚此,煅烧¾_˜åœŸä¸ŽçŸ³ç°çŸ³å¤åˆèƒ¶å‡ä½“系在应用与推广˜q‡ç¨‹ä¸­ä»å­˜åœ¨ä¸€äº›é—®é¢˜äºŸéœ€è§£å†³ã€‚首先,其主要原料粘土(高岭土)来源òq¿æ³›åQŒåœ°åŒºå·®å¼‚性较大,因此不同地区的水泥煅烧工艺、ä‹É用方法、颜艌Ӏæ€§èƒ½éƒ½ä¼šå­˜åœ¨è¾ƒå¤§å·®å¼‚。其‹Æ¡ï¼Œç”׃ºŽåŽŸææ–™çš„¾_’径分布和化学吸附作用,煅烧¾_˜åœŸä¸ŽçŸ³ç°çŸ³å¤åˆèƒ¶å‡ä½“系的æ؜凝土工作性较普通硅酸盐水惔混凝土略差,且缺ž®‘与之完全匹配的化学外加剂ã€? </p> <p>¼„±æ¿€å‘胶凝材料是¼‹…酸盐水泥体¾pÕd¤–的重要胶凝材料。该胶凝材料是碱性条件下利用OH-溶解含有¼‹…铝钙元素的天然或äh工矿物相物质åQŒé€šè¿‡æº¶è§£-¾~©èšååº”形成¼‹…铝酸盐的反应äñ”物与微结构,产生胶结作用的一¾cÀL°´¼‹¬æ€§èƒ¶å‡ææ–™ã€‚碱‹È€å‘胶凝材料的¼‹¬åŒ–机理、反应äñ”物与微结构不同于¼‹…酸盐水泥,æ ÒŽ®ååº”机理可将反应˜q‡ç¨‹å¤§è‡´åˆ†äؓ4个阶ŒDµï¼šè…èš€æº¶è§£ã€ç¦»å­åã^衡,胶体或微晶晶核åŞ成,胶体或微晶核的重构,三维¾l“构胶体与类沸石微晶的åŞ成。基于上˜q°ååº”机理, ¼„±æ¿€å‘胶凝材料具有早强快¼‹¬çš„特征åQŒå…¶24h抗压强度可达到约20MPaåQŒä¸”通过增加SiO2/Al2O3摩尔比值实现凝¾l“硬化时间由20minè‡?10min可调控,故该胶凝材料适于快速修å»ÞZ¸Žä¿®è¡¥å·¥ç¨‹ã€‚除上述快硬早强特征外,¼„±æ¿€å‘胶凝材料具有优异的低介质渗透与耐蚀性,其氯¼›Õd­æ¸—透深度最低仅ä¸ÞZ¼ ¾lŸç¡…酸盐水惔混凝土的¾U?0%åQŒç”šè‡Ïxµ¸æ³¡äºŽ10%质量‹¹“度的硫酸溶液中45d仍然å…ähœ‰å®Œæ•´çš„外观。鉴于优异的抗äçR蚀性质åQŒç¢±‹È€å‘胶凝材料适于作äؓå¼ø™…èš€æ€§çŽ¯å¢ƒçš„建筑材料或防护材料,目前该材料相å…ÏxŠ€æœ¯å·²å½¢æˆå›½å®¶æ ‡å‡†GB/T 29423-2012《用于耐腐蚀水惔制品的碱矿渣¾_‰ç…¤ç°æ؜凝土》ã€? </p> <p>虽然å…ähœ‰ä¼˜å¼‚的早期力学性能与抗侵蚀能力åQŒä½†æ˜¯ç¢±‹È€å‘胶凝材料收¾~©å˜å½¢å¤§ã€‚在相同条äšg下,¼„±æ¿€å‘粉煤灰与矿渣砂‹¹†çš„28d自收¾~©å˜å½¢å€¼çº¦ä¸ºç¡…酸盐水惔砂浆çš?è‡?倍,è€?8dòq²ç‡¥æ”¶ç¾ƒå˜åŞ值则ä¸?è‡?倍。造成上述¾l“果的原因在于碱‹È€å‘材料中介孔体积åQˆï¼œ50nmåQ‰æ˜Žæ˜ùN«˜äºŽç¡…酸盐水惔‹¹†ä½“åQˆçº¦ä¸?倍)åQŒä»Žè€Œå¯¼è‡´æ˜¾è‘—的毛细孔收¾~©ï¼Œæ•…应重视¼„±æ¿€å‘胶凝材料的体积收羃变åŞ问题。基于上˜q°ç»“果,¼„±æ¿€å‘胶凝材料的收羃变åޘq‡å¤§åQŒçŽ°æœ‰æŠ—裂技术对¼„±æ¿€å‘胶凝材料的改善作用亟需˜q›ä¸€æ­¥éªŒè¯ã€‚å…¶‹Æ¡ï¼Œ¼„±æ¿€å‘胶凝材料ä‹É用碱性激发剂作äؓ主要的原材料åQŒæ•…˜q”碱析盐å¯ÆD‡´çš„外观质量问题及抑制机制也应重点考虑。最后,¼„±æ¿€å‘胶凝材料的成熟工作性调控技术仍然欠¾~ºï¼Œä¸»è¦è¡¨çŽ°ä¸ºç¢±‹È€å‘胶凝材料对现有减水剂的相容性差åQŒå‡¾l“时间过快,未来新型专业减水剂与工作性调控方法的研究亟需深入开展ã€? </p> <p>三、矿物外加剂 </p> <p>矿物外加剂是在æ؜凝土搅拌˜q‡ç¨‹ä¸­åŠ å…¥çš„、具有一定细度和‹zÀL€§çš„用于改善新拌和硬化æ؜凝土性能的某些矿物类产品。传¾lŸçŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂可分为天然类、äh工类与工业废料类åQŒå…¶ä½œç”¨æœºç†ä¸ºç«å±Þq°æ•ˆåº”、填充密实效应、增塑效应和界面效应。近òq´æ¥åQŒå·²æœ‰ç ”½I¶å°†¾U³ç±³æŠ€æœ¯åº”用于混凝土矿物外加剂中,利用¾U³ç±³ž®ºåº¦ç‰©è´¨ž®å°ºå¯¸æ•ˆåº”、量子效应、表面效应,不但可以填充常规矿物外加剂无法填充的水惔‹¹†ä½“é—´å¾®¾l†ç©ºéš™ï¼ˆ10nmï½?00nm的微孔)åQŒæ”¹å–„æ؜凝土的堆¿U¯æ•ˆæžœï¼Œé‡Šæ”¾å¤šä½™çš„自由水åQŒæé«˜é¢—¾_’的水膜层厚度。此外,利用¾U³ç±³ææ–™çš„高化学‹zÀL€§å’Œå‚¬åŒ–‹zÀL€§ä¿ƒ˜q›å…¶ä¸Žæ°´åŒ–äñ”物大量键合,同时以纳¾c³çŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂为晶核在光™¢—¾_’表面åŞ成水化硅酔R’™å‡èƒ¶ç›¸ï¼ŒæŠŠæ¾æ•£çš„水化¼‹…酸钙凝胶变成纳¾c³çŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂为核心的¾|‘状¾l“æž„åQŒè¿›è€Œå¯¹C-S-H 胶凝¾l“æž„˜q›è¡Œæ”¹å–„åQŒç”Ÿæˆçš„水化产物中超高密度C-S-H 凝胶取代了低密度C-S-H 凝胶åQŒä»Žè€Œæ˜¾è‘—改善或提高水惔基复合材料的‹¹å˜æ€§èƒ½å’ŒåŠ›å­¦æ€§èƒ½ã€‚因此,研究¾U³ç±³ž®ºåº¦çš„矿物外加剂已成为实现æ؜凝土­‘…高性能化的关键技术途径之一ã€? </p> <p>引入高活性微¾U³ç±³çŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂颗¾_’后åQŒå°†å®žçŽ°ä¸åŒçŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂的协同优化设计åQŒè¾¾åˆ°åŠŸèƒ½å åŠ å’Œ‹zÀL€§äº’补,从而实现æ؜凝土的超高性能化。例如江苏苏博特新材料股份有限公司研发的¾U³ç±³çŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂,不仅可以有效调控混凝土的‹¹å˜æ€§èƒ½åQŒæ˜¾è‘—减ž®ä½Žæ°´èƒ¶æ¯”æ؜凝土的粘度,实现自流òq»I¼›åŒæ—¶å¯é€šè¿‡çŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂的‹Æ¡é€’水化效应实现æ؜凝土强度全周期分阶段½EÏx­¥æå‡ã€‚此外,可实çŽîC½Žæ°´èƒ¶æ¯”æ؜凝土收羃历程与矿物外加剂膨胀调控历程相匹配,实现全过½E‹æ”¶¾~©å˜å½¢æŽ§åˆ¶åœ¨æ™®é€šæ؜凝土水åã^。此新型¾U³ç±³çŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂在高铁、军工和桥梁½{‰è¯¸å¤šå·¥½E‹éƒ½å·²å¾—到应用,推动了超高性能混凝土的规模化、常规化制备与应用,引领了行业的˜q›æ­¥ã€? </p> <p>虽然混凝土外加剂已逐渐ç”Þq²—çŠïLš„直接¾_‰ç£¨ä½¿ç”¨åQŒé€æ¸˜q‡æ¸¡åˆ°çŽ°é˜¶æ®µçš„ç²¾¾l†è®¾è®¡ä¸Žé«˜æŠ€æœ¯æ”¹æ€§ï¼Œæœ‰æ•ˆå®žçŽ°äº†æ؜凝土由高性能向超高性能升çñ”åQŒç„¶è€Œé’ˆå¯¹çŸ¿ç‰©å¤–加剂作用机理、协同优化技术等斚w¢ž®šå¾…深入研究工作ã€? </p> <p>新拌性能与收¾~©å˜å½¢æ˜¯çŽ°é˜¶ŒDµå®žçŽ°æ؜凝土高性能化的首要问题åQ?未来应大力引导æ؜凝土功能材料的原创性研½IӞ¼Œä¾§é‡åˆ†å­æž„效设计åQŒè§£å†³ä½Žæ°´èƒ¶æ¯”æ؜凝土¾_˜åº¦å¤§ã€è„†æ€§å¤§ä¸ŽéŸ§æ€§å·®ã€ç»“构温升及温降收羃变åŞ大的éšùN¢˜ã€? </p> <br><br><img src="http://www.designwasp.com/19xw/jbz106.jpg" alt="沛_Œ—双星混凝土搅拌站讑֤‡" width="100%" ><br>     上图沛_Œ—双星混凝土搅拌站讑֤‡ <br><br><img src="http://www.designwasp.com/201812/jiaobanzhan%20(17).jpg" alt="沛_Œ—双星混凝土搅拌站讑֤‡" width="100%"><br>     上图沛_Œ—双星混凝土搅拌站讑֤‡ <br><br> <p> </div> <p></p> <div class="kk2"><img src="../kk2.jpg" width="1" height="11"></div> <p>如果想了解更多详情可以登录河åŒ?a href="../index.html">双星</a>官网åQ?a href="http://www.designwasp.com">www.designwasp.com</a>åQŒæ¬¢˜qŽæ–°è€ç”¨æˆ·å…‰ä¸´é€‰è´­ <p class="writings"><span>2022-08-06</span>上一½‹?<a href="http://www.designwasp.com/gongsixinwen/220806.html">混凝土搅拌站混凝土配合比调整‹¹ç¨‹è¯¦è¿°</a></p> </div> </div> <a href="http://www.designwasp.com/">ÍøÉÏ¿ìÈý¼Æ»®</a> <script> (function(){ var bp = document.createElement('script'); var curProtocol = window.location.protocol.split(':')[0]; if (curProtocol === 'https') { bp.src = 'https://zz.bdstatic.com/linksubmit/push.js'; } else { bp.src = 'http://push.zhanzhang.baidu.com/push.js'; } var s = document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(bp, s); })(); </script> </body> </html>