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href="http://www.designwasp.com/">åQšæ²³åŒ—双æ˜?/a>  </span></p> <div> <p> 混凝土内部水分在低温下结晶膨胀是造成混凝土受冻而破环的æ ÒŽœ¬åŽŸå› åQŒé¿å…æ؜凝土受冻是预拌æ؜凝土冬期生äñ”、施工时应考虑的重炚w—®é¢˜ã€‚若混凝土发生受å†ÈŽ°è±¡ï¼Œè½»è€…加固、重者拆除重建。æ؜凝土防冻措施不仅是ä‹É用防å†Õd‰‚的问题,而是一个系¾lŸçš„、全面的、综合的问题。例å¦?原材料的保温和预热,防冻剂的使用åQŒé…åˆæ¯”的调整和控制åQŒè¿è¾“、调度管理措施,混凝土保温养护等防冻措施应统½{¹è€ƒè™‘åQŒæŽ§åˆ¶å…³é”®å› ç´ ã€? </p> <p>1、æ؜凝土防冻机理½Ž€˜q? </p> <p>水惔水化作用的速度除与混凝土本íw«ç»„成材料和配合比有兛_¤–åQŒå—温度影响很大。当温度升高æ—Óž¼Œæ°´åŒ–作用加快åQŒå¼ºåº¦å¢žé•¿ä¹Ÿè¾ƒå¿«åQ›å½“温度降低åˆ?℃时åQŒæ°´æ³¥æ°´åŒ–作用减慢甚臛_œæ­¢ï¼Œå¼ºåº¦å¢žé•¿å˜æ…¢è‡›_œæ­¢ï¼Œç›´è‡³æ°´åŒ–作用停止åQŒå¼ºåº¦ä¸å†å¢žé•¿ï¼›æ°´å˜æˆå†°åŽï¼Œä½“积增大¾U?%åQŒäñ”生较大的膨胀应力。该膨胀力值常常大于水泥石内部形成的初期强度å€û|¼Œç ´çŽ¯æ··å‡åœŸå†…部结构,增加孔隙率,使得混凝土强度大òq…度降低åQŒè¡¨çŽîCؓ混凝土的å†ÀLŸã€? </p> <p>在一般情况下åQŒæ؜凝土早期允许受冻的äÍ界强度不得低äº?MPaåQŒæ°”温越低,该数å€ÆD¶Šå¤§ã€‚因此,提高混凝土的早期强度是保证æ؜凝土避免受冻的重要渠道。加入防å†Õd¤–加剂是ä‹É水的冰点下降åQŒä¿ƒä½¿æ؜凝土在负温下¼‹¬åŒ–一ŒD‰|—¶é—ß_¼Œä½¿æ؜凝土强度持箋增长臛_—å†ÖMÍ界强度之上ã€? </p> <p>2、防å†ÀLŽªæ–½åŠæŽ§åˆ¶è¦ç‚¹ </p> <p>冬期施工时水泥储存量不宜太多åQŒåœ¨ä¿è¯ç”Ÿäñ”˜qžç®‹çš„情况下åQŒå°½é‡å‡ž®‘库存。可减少存放仓位åQŒå°½é‡é›†ä¸­å­˜æ”‘Öœ¨æŸä»“。新˜q›çš„散装水惔相对温度较高åQŒä‹É用时可提高æ؜凝土的初始温度ã€? </p> <p> 提高搅拌用水的温度是防止混凝土受å†Èš„重要手段。冬期生产时åQŒå¾è®®å®‰è£…与生äñ”量相适应的供热锅炉,ž®†æ…拌用水预先加热,让æ؜凝土出机温度不低äº?0℃,提高水惔的早期水化速度åQŒæé«˜æ؜凝土的早期强度ã€? </p> <p>应尽量减ž®‘已储存砂石物料的热量损失。露天砂堆表面尽可能盖上一层草垫或毛毡åQŒé™ä½Žç ‚子的受冻½E‹åº¦ã€‚若砂堆外层å†Õd£³å·²åŞ成,使用物料æ—Óž¼Œåº”去除冻壻I¼Œž®½é‡é¿å…¾l“冻的砂块进入搅拌机。封闭料‹‚šå†…存放物料æ—Óž¼Œè¦ç¡®ä¿æ–™‹‚šçš„密闭性,防止å†ïL©ºæ°”çš„‹¹å…¥ã€‚在条äšg允许æ—Óž¼Œå¯åœ¨æ–™æ£šçš„用料端生火åQŒæé«˜ç‰©æ–™å…¥æœºæ¸©åº¦ã€? </p> <p>使用优质的原材料是æ؜凝土防冻的重要环节,应ä‹É用含水量低的各种原材料,要严格控制砂、石料的风化½E‹åº¦åQŒä¸¥æ ¼æ£€‹¹‹é˜²å†Õd‰‚中有效成分含量,防止原材料质量问题造成的æ؜凝土防冻效果折减ã€? </p> <p>水惔水化受温度媄响很大,而掺合料的水化要同时受到水惔水化产物量和温度的双重媄响,温度效应更大。æ؜凝土的早期强度尽快增长至临界强度åQŒåº”适当提高水惔用量åQŒé™ä½ŽæŽºåˆæç”¨é‡ã€‚水泥用量增大,可提高æ؜凝土的早期强度,同时åQŒæ°´åŒ–热的增加也会åšg¾~“æ؜凝土自èín的温度降低速率。此外,配置混凝土时åQŒè¿˜è¦ç»“合施工部位和工地的æ؜凝土保暖措施ã€? </p> <p> 通过大量试验证明åQŒå½“æ€È”¨æ°´é‡é™ä½Žåˆ?70kg以下æ—Óž¼Œæ··å‡åœŸçš„抗冻性有明显提高。这说明åQŒé™ä½Žæ؜凝土中水胶比åQŒæ؜凝土液相¼›Õd­‹¹“度提高åQŒå†°ç‚¹ä¸‹é™ï¼Œæ··å‡åœŸçš„受冻机率降低åQŒå› æ­¤ï¼Œé…åˆ¶æ··å‡åœŸæ—¶åº”尽量降低水胶比。徏议非泵送æ؜凝土也适当掺加减水剂,˜q™å¯¹æé«˜æ··å‡åœŸçš„抗冻性有重要作用ã€? </p> <p>使用有效的复合防å†Õd‰‚åQŒåœ¨æ··å‡åœŸé˜²å†Õd‰‚中加入具有减水、早强、防内R€å¼•æ°”组份,保证混凝土在负温下不受冻。复合防å†Õd‰‚不但减少混凝土拌合物的用水量åQŒå‡ž®‘冻害程度,增加混凝土的密实度,而且降低水的冰点åQŒä‹É水惔在负温下¾l§ç®‹æ°´åŒ–åQŒå¼ºåº¦ç‘ô¾l­å¢žé•Ñ€? </p> <p>混凝土进行搅拌时åQŒå¾è®®æ…拌时间比夏季时åšgé•?0s左右åQŒè®©ž®‘量砂、石å†Õd—解体åQŒæé«˜æ؜凝土的匀质性,减少å†Õd—å¯ÒŽØœå‡åœŸæž„äšg局部结构的不良影响ã€? </p> <p> 为降低æ؜凝土在严寒环境中的暴露时é—ß_¼Œæé«˜å…¥æ¨¡æ¸©åº¦åQŒåº”提前做好相关工作保证˜qè¾“¾U¿èµ\畅通,合理调配车辆åQŒåšåˆ°å·¥åœîC¸åŽ‹èžR或轻微压车,ž®½é‡¾~©çŸ­˜qè¾“环节和压车时é—ß_¼Œé˜²æ­¢æ··å‡åœŸæœ¬íw«çƒ­é‡çš„损耗ã€? </p> <p> 混凝土运输、输送机具及甭管应采取保温措施。例如,混凝土运输èžR¾|ä½“要穿上保暖èžR衣,泵送管道要用棉被或毛毡½{‰åŒ…裹严实等。æ؜凝土¾l“构表面也要采用毛毡、棉被或加膜草垫½{‰åŠæ—¶åšå¥½è¦†ç›–。若条äšg允许åQŒæ–½å·¥æ—¶å¯åœ¨æ–½å·¥å±‚下部空间生火,降低混凝土受冻风险。对于低强度½{‰çñ”的薄层结æž?å¦?垫层åQŒé˜²æ°´ä¿æŠ¤å±‚½{?应特别关注,其受å†ÀLœºçŽ‡æ›´å¤§ã€‚冬期施工的混凝土应ž®½é‡å»‰™•¿å…ÀLŠ¤æ—‰™—´å’Œæ‹†æ¨¡æ—¶é—´ã€‚模板和保温层应在æ؜凝土辑ֈ°è¦æ±‚强度åQŒä¸”混凝土表面温度冷却到5℃后在拆除。对墙板½{‰ç­‰è–„壁混凝土构ä»Óž¼Œå®œåšg长模板拆除时间。当混凝土表面温度与环境温度之差大于20℃时åQŒæ‹†æ¨¡åŽæ··å‡åœŸè¡¨é¢ç«‹åŒ™¿›è¡Œä¿æ¸©è¦†ç›–。æ؜凝土强度未达到受å†ÖMÍ界强度和设计要求æ—Óž¼Œåº”ç‘ô¾l­è¿›è¡Œå…»æŠ¤ã€‚冬期施工期é—ß_¼Œåº”编制越冬维护方案åƈ˜q›è¡Œä¿æ¸©¾l´æŠ¤ã€? </p> <p> 当采用蓄热法、暖‹‚šæ³•ã€åŠ çƒ­æ³•æ–½å·¥æ—Óž¼Œé‡‡ç”¨¼‹…酸盐水泥、普通硅酸盐水惔配制的æ؜凝土åQŒä¸åº”低于设计æ؜凝土强度½{‰çñ”值的30%åQ›é‡‡ç”¨çŸ¿æ¸£ç¡…酸盐水惔、粉煤灰¼‹…酸盐水泥、火å±Þq°¼‹…酸盐水泥、粉煤灰¼‹…酸盐水泥、复合硅酸盐水惔配制的æ؜凝土æ—Óž¼Œä¸åº”低于设计混凝土强度等¾U§å€¼çš„40%。当室外最低气温不低于åQ?5℃时åQŒé‡‡ç”¨ç»¼åˆè“„热法、负温养护施工的混凝土受å†ÖMÍ界温度不应低äº?MPaåQ›å½“室外最低气温不低于åQ?5℃时åQŒé‡‡ç”¨è´Ÿæ¸©å…»æŠ¤æ–½å·¥çš„混凝土受å†ÖMÍ界温度不应低äº?MPa。强度等¾U§ç­‰äºŽæˆ–高于C50的æ؜凝土åQŒä¸åº”低于设计æ؜凝土强度½{‰çñ”值的30%。对有抗冻耐久性要求的混凝土,不应低于设计混凝土强度等¾U§å€¼çš„70%ã€?/p> <p> 3、其它注意事™å? </p> <p> 密切å…Ïx³¨å¤©æ°”预报åQŒå®šæ—¶è§‚‹¹‹å®¤å¤–气温。根据气象信息及时制定相应措施。当室外气温很低æ—Óž¼Œå»ø™®®åœæ­¢æ–½å·¥ã€‚不考虑其它原因åQŒä»…从技术角度分析,˜q™æ ·èƒ½å¤Ÿé™ä½Žæ··å‡åœŸå—å†ÖMº‹æ•…的发生机率ã€? </p> <p> 在防止æ؜凝土受冻的一¾pÕdˆ—措施中,能做到的ž®½é‡åšçš„全面åQŒé¿å…é—漏重炚w¡¹åQŒè½å®žå·¥ä½œåŠ¡å¿…到位。预拌æ؜凝土企业和施工企业在分别做好自己的防å†ÀLŽªæ–½çš„同时åQŒå¿…™åÕdè°ƒä½œæˆ˜ï¼Œåšå¥½äº¤æŽ¥çŽ¯èŠ‚的接‹z½å·¥ä½œã€? </p> <p> 4、æ€È»“ </p> <p> 从思想上重视æ؜凝土防冻工作åQŒå¿…™åÕd…¨é¢è€ƒè™‘åQŒç³»¾lŸåˆ†æžï¼Œåˆ¶å®šå› åœ°åˆ¶å®œé˜²å†»æŽªæ–½åQŒä»ŽåŽŸææ–™è¿›åŽ‚检验、物料的覆盖蓄热保温、生产过½E‹çš„配比控制以及˜qè¾“、浇½{‘å’Œå…ÀLŠ¤æ–šw¢åšå¥½è®¤çœŸè½å®žåQŒä¸å¾—遗漏重ç‚ÒŽŽ§åˆ‰™¡¹åQŒæé«˜æ؜凝土防冻的保证系敎ͼŒ¼‹®ä¿æ··å‡åœŸä¸å—冻ã€? </p> <br><br><img src="http://www.designwasp.com/19xw/jbz106.jpg" alt="沛_Œ—双星混凝土搅拌站讑֤‡" width="100%" ><br>     上图沛_Œ—双星混凝土搅拌站讑֤‡ <br><br><img src="http://www.designwasp.com/201812/jiaobanzhan%20(17).jpg" alt="沛_Œ—双星混凝土搅拌站讑֤‡" width="100%"><br>     上图沛_Œ—双星混凝土搅拌站讑֤‡ <br><br> <p> </div> <p></p> <div class="kk2"><img src="../kk2.jpg" width="1" 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